To convict the defendant [on any count] of identify crimeone particular act of identify crime must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt, and you must unanimously agree as to which act has been proved. You need not unanimously agree that the defendant committed all the acts of identify crime.
Juries are most common in common law adversarial-system jurisdictions.
|Jury - Wikipedia||To convict the defendant [on any count] of identify crimeone particular act of identify crime must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt, and you must unanimously agree as to which act has been proved.|
|- The Washington Post||Jury Unanimity For much of its history, the American criminal jury has been required to reach unanimous verdicts.|
In the modern system, juries act as triers of factwhile judges act as triers of law but see nullification. A trial without a jury in which both questions of fact and questions of law are decided by a judge is known as a bench trial.
Types of jury[ edit ] Main article: Petit jury The "petit jury" or "trial jury", sometimes "petty jury" hears the evidence in a trial as presented by both the plaintiff petitioner and the defendant respondent. After hearing the evidence and often jury instructions from the judgethe group retires for deliberationto consider a verdict.
The majority required for a verdict varies.
In some cases it must be unanimous, while in other jurisdictions it may be a majority or supermajority. A jury that is unable to come to a verdict is referred to as a hung jury.
The size of the jury varies; in criminal cases involving serious felonies there are usually 12 jurors. In civil cases many trials require fewer than twelve jurors. Grand jury A grand jury, a type of jury now confined almost exclusively to federal courts and some state jurisdictions in the United States, determines whether there is enough evidence for a criminal trial to go forward.
Grand juries carry out this duty by examining evidence presented to them by a prosecutor and issuing indictmentsor by investigating alleged crimes and issuing presentments.
A grand jury is traditionally larger than and distinguishable from the petit jury used during a trial, usually with 12 jurors. It is not required that a suspect be notified of grand jury proceedings. Grand juries can also be used for filing charges in the form of a sealed indictment against unaware suspects who are arrested later by a surprise police visit.
In addition to their primary role in screening criminal prosecutions and assisting in the investigation of crimes, grand juries in California, Florida,  and some other U.
A coroner is a public official often an elected local government official in the United Stateswho is charged with determining the circumstances leading to a death in ambiguous or suspicious cases. A jury is intended to be an impartial panel capable of reaching a verdict.
Jury selection in the United States usually includes organized questioning of the prospective jurors jury pool by the lawyers for the plaintiff and the defendant and by the judge— voir dire —as well as rejecting some jurors because of bias or inability to properly serve "challenge for cause"and the discretionary right of each side to reject a specified number of jurors without having to prove a proper cause for the rejection "peremptory challenge"before the jury is impaneled.
A head juror is called the "foreperson", "foreman" or "presiding juror". The foreperson may be selected by the judge or by vote of the jurors, depending on the jurisdiction. Since there is always the possibility of jurors not completing a trial for health or other reasons, often one or more alternate jurors are selected.
Alternates are present for the entire trial but do not take part in deliberating the case and deciding the verdict unless one or more of the impaneled jurors are removed from the jury.
In Connecticut, alternate jurors are dismissed before the panel of sworn jurors begin deliberation. Connecticut General Statutes e and h do not allow alternate jurors to be segregated from the regular sworn jurors.
In civil cases in Connecticut, C. When an insufficient number of summoned jurors appear in court to handle a matter, the law in many jurisdictions empowers the jury commissioner or other official convening the jury to involuntarily impress bystanders in the vicinity of the place where the jury is to be convened to serve on the jury.
The same custom evolved into the vehmic court system in medieval Germany. In Anglo-Saxon England, juries investigated crimes.
After the Norman Conquestsome parts of the country preserved juries as the means of investigating crimes. The use of ordinary members of the community to consider crimes was unusual in ancient cultures, but was nonetheless also found in ancient Greece.
The modern jury trial evolved out of this custom in the midth century during the reign of Henry II. Called juries of presentment, these men testified under oath to crimes committed in their neighbourhood.
The Assize of Clarendon in caused these juries to be adopted systematically throughout the country. The jury in this period was "self-informing," meaning it heard very little evidence or testimony in court.
Instead, jurors were recruited from the locality of the dispute and were expected to know the facts before coming to court. The source of juror knowledge could include first-hand knowledge, investigation, and less reliable sources such as rumour and hearsay.
Sheriffs prepared cases for trial and found jurors with relevant knowledge and testimony. Sheriffs executed the decision of the court. These procedures enabled Henry II to delegate authority without endowing his subordinates with too much power.
If the wound healed rapidly and well, it was believed God found the suspect innocent, and if not then the suspect was found guilty. With trial by ordeal banned, establishing guilt would have been problematic had England not had forty years of judicial experience.
Justices were by then accustomed to asking jurors of presentment about points of fact in assessing indictments; it was a short step to ask jurors if they concluded the accused was guilty as charged.articles something upon which we can all agree: requiring a unanimous jury verdict in criminal cases brian m.
morris* i. no specific unanimity instruction is required where no confusion exists as to the acts committed .. 6 a. alternative mens reae do .
JURY UNANIMITY. The requirement that a jury in a criminal case reach a unanimous decision became generally established in England during the fourteenth century—about the same time that juries came to be composed of twelve persons.
no meaningful discussion of group decision making. Instead, the court focused its attention on the process. It devoted some of its attention to the history of unanimity in this country and on the function of a jury, which it said was to guard against the corrupt or overzealous prosecutor and against the compliant, biased or eccentric judge.
Jury unanimity is also at issue when, as in the case of Baker, evidence is presented of a greater number of separate criminal offenses than the defendant is charged with. The “either/or” rule is the procedure most commonly followed to balance the need to prosecute these types of cases.
Jury Unanimity. For much of its history, the American criminal jury has been required to reach unanimous verdicts. In , in a pair of U.S. Supreme Court cases, the Justices held that Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments did not require jury unanimity in state court jury trials.
Majority Jury Verdicts in Criminal Trials Page 3 institution of trial by jury.” 9 It has also been stated that “the inestimable value” of a criminal jury verdict “is created only by its unanimity.