George Mason University March This website offers an image database of an important Islamic art form: Images of all pieces of Islamic ceramics, spanning the Islamic period 7thth centuriesrepresent Egypt and other areas of the Middle East such as Iran and Turkey that were important ceramic production sites, making this an excellent resource for classroom use. Ceramics are a central, if often neglected, art form of the Middle East and North Africa.
The Caliphate, or succession, of Abu Bakr and Umar, two of the most prominent of the companions of the Prophet, the spread of Islam and Islamic foreign policy in regards to the inhabitants of subjugated lands.
Who would be its leader? There were four persons obviously marked for leadership: Their piousness and ability to govern the affairs of the Islamic nation was uniformly par excellence.
By dusk, everyone concurred, and Abu Bakr had been recognized as the khaleefah of Muhammad. An exemplary leader, he lived simply, assiduously fulfilled his religious obligations, and was accessible and sympathetic to his people. In what was a major accomplishment, Abu Bakr swiftly disciplined them.
Later, he consolidated the support of the tribes within the Arabian Peninsula and subsequently funneled their energies against the powerful empires of the East: In short, he demonstrated the viability of the Muslim state. The second caliph, Umar - appointed by Abu Bakr - continued to demonstrate that viability.
Within four years after the death of the Prophet, the Muslim state had extended its sway over all of Syria and had, at a famous battle fought during a sandstorm near the River Yarmuk, blunted the power of the Byzantines - whose ruler, Heraclius, had shortly before refused the call to accept Islam.
Even more astonishingly, the Muslim state administered the conquered territories with a tolerance almost unheard of in that age. At Damascus, for example, the Muslim leader, Khalid ibn al-Walid, signed a treaty which read as follows: This is what Khalid ibn al-Walid would grant to the inhabitants of Damascus if he enters therein: Their city wall shall not be demolished; neither shall any Muslim be quartered in their houses.
Thereunto we give them the pact of God and the protection of His Prophet, the caliphs and the believers. So long as they pay the poll tax, nothing but good shall befall them.
This tolerance was typical of Islam. A year after Yarmook, Umar, in the military camp of al-Jabiyah on the Golan Heights, received word that the Byzantines were ready to surrender Jerusalem. According to one account, he entered the city alone and clad in a simple cloak, astounding a populace accustomed to the sumptuous garb and court ceremonials of the Byzantines and Persians.
He astounded them still further when he set their fears at rest by negotiating a generous treaty in which he told them: In Syria, for example, many Christians who had been involved in bitter theological disputes with Byzantine authorities - and persecuted for it - welcomed the coming of Islam as an end to tyranny.
And in Egypt, which Amr ibn al-As took from the Byzantines after a daring march across the Sinai Peninsula, the Coptic Christians not only welcomed the Arabs, but enthusiastically assisted them.
This pattern was repeated throughout the Byzantine Empire.
Conflict among Greek Orthodox, Syrian Monophysites, Copts, and Nestorian Christians contributed to the failure of the Byzantines - always regarded as intruders - to develop popular support, while the tolerance which Muslims showed toward Christians and Jews removed the primary cause for opposing them.
Umar adopted this attitude in administrative matters as well. Although he assigned Muslim governors to the new provinces, existing Byzantine and Persian administrations were retained wherever possible.
For fifty years, in fact, Greek remained the chancery language of Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, while Pahlavi, the chancery language of the Sassanians, continued to be used in Mesopotamia and Persia. Umar, who served as caliph for ten years, ended his rule with a significant victory over the Persian Empire.
The struggle with the Sassanid realm had opened in at al-Qadisiyah, near Ctesiphon in Iraq, where Muslim cavalry had successfully coped with elephants used by the Persians as a kind of primitive tank. His caliphate was a high point in early Islamic history. He was noted for his justice, social ideals, administration, and statesmanship.
His innovations left an all enduring imprint on social welfare, taxation, and the financial and administrative fabric of the growing empire.It was then that the importation of fine porcelain and stoneware from China convinced the rulers of Islam that pottery making was an art worth encouraging.
As a result, ingenious craftsmen from all over the Islamic areas flocked to the capital of . This website offers an image database of an important Islamic art form: ceramics. The museum is a state institution established in in the 19th-century palace of a prince of Egypt’s former royal family.
A Historical Overview of African Art History. Posted on December 20, by MAMcIntosh. Seated Figure, terracotta, 13th century, used especially for sculpture and pottery) who is still revered as a culture hero in the Mande-speaking world.
At its height, this Islamic empire, which flourished until the seventeenth century, encompassed. It looks like you've lost connection to our server. Please check your internet connection or reload this page.
The first examples of pottery appeared in Eastern Asia several thousand years later. In the Xianrendong cave in China, fragments of pots dated to 18,, BCE have been found.
It is believed that from China the use of pottery successively spread to Japan and the Russian Far East region where archeologists have found shards of ceramic artifacts dating to 14, BCE. Study of Islamic pottery Arthur Lane produced two books which made substantial contribution to understanding the history and merit of Muslim ceramics.
The first book was dedicated to the study of early ceramics from the Abbasid period till the Seljuk times, sketching the various events which played a significant role in the rise and fall of particular styles.