A Abbreviations This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions.
However, despite difficulties in ascertaining precise measurement of its occurrence, a plethora of research has been conducted examining correlates of reported domestic assaults. Among the identified correlates of this particular type of violence, which often mirrors the established correlates of crime in general, are gender, race, and social class.
Gender remains perhaps the most salient factor influencing both victimization and perpetration, with women as likely victims and men as likely perpetrators.
Race and social class remain a closely interwoven social reality and are often discussed concurrently. This research paper documents recent research focusing on the relationship between social class and domestic violence with attention to the related link between race and domestic assault. Generally, it is argued that domestic violence is not class specific, with victimization occurring in all corners of society.
Although victimization can certainly occur anywhere, it is not randomly distributed throughout society.
Instead, the extant literature base situates prevalence of domestic assault in lower-class families and communities.
Isolated studies have reported higher incidence among middle- and upper-class families see, for example, Davidsonalthough the vast majority of empirical evidence overwhelmingly suggests a strong, significant relationship between domestic assault and lower socioeconomic status.
Race is also closely linked to victimization for women, with minority groups significantly more likely to experience victimization in terms of physical assault, rape, and stalking. However, racial and ethnic differences tend to disappear after controlling for socioeconomic status i.
As noted above, it is difficult to separate race and class realities in sociological research. Consequently, the bulk of research simultaneously reports findings pertaining to the intersection of the two. For example, results from a study examining the incidence of marital violence within the black community found that social class was among the most salient predictors of domestic assault Lockhart and White Using a sample of married or cohabiting black women living in a major southeastern metropolitan city in the United States, the authors found that lower-class women experienced both more general conflicts and more conflicts leading to violence in their relationships than did their middle- and upper-class counterparts.
Greater incidence of violence wherein men were victims was related to interaction between class and the extent of discord present in the relationship. Interestingly, the proportion of women who engaged in physical violence, as well as its frequency, was equal to or exceeded that used by the men against them.
Relationship discord was also found to be a significant predictor of domestic violence, even after controlling for social class. Rennison and Planty analyzed the relationship between race of victim and intimate partner violence utilizing data from the National Crime Victimization Survey.
Although univariate analyses typically indicate a significant relationship between race and domestic violence as was the case in this studyfurther multivariate assessment revealed that racial differences disappeared after controlling for annual household income.
Findings from this research again illustrate the importance of class in understanding the relationship between race and victimization. Several studies have chosen to investigate the effects of socioeconomic characteristics along with other mitigating individual and environmental features, including substance abuse, mental illness, and community disorganization.
Field and Caetanofor instance, investigated ethnic differences in domestic violence as they related to socioeconomic status and alcohol use. Findings indicated that although ethnic minorities reported higher rates of domestic violence, differences were reduced after controlling for social class and alcohol use.
Black couples, however, were found to be at greater risk of domestic violence as compared with whites and Hispanics even after controlling for risk factors. Not surprisingly, alcohol use tends to exacerbate conflictual situations, which may then lead to increased violence.This violence, moreover, cuts across class, race, ethnic, and cultural boundaries and, while domestic violence is most often a crime against women, it has been found that women also perpetrate intimate violence against their husbands, boyfriends, and lesbian partners.
If a person experiences trauma; specifically that of domestic violence, either directly or vicariously (indirectly) from a young age, they do not properly pass though the appropriate developmental stages. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
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Start studying Sociology Module 2 Exam. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. an incident of domestic violence occurs every 25 seconds. D. Students from a lower socioeconomic position are taught to question the dominant ideology. B. The history of violence against women remains vague in scientific literature.
This is in part because many kinds of violence against women (specifically rape, sexual assault, and domestic violence) are under-reported, often due to societal norms, taboos, stigma, and the sensitive nature of the subject.