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Psychoanalyse first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the s. Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms.
Freud realised that there were mental processes that were not conscious, whilst he was employed as a neurological consultant at the Children's Hospital, where he noticed that many aphasic children had no apparent organic cause for their symptoms. He then wrote a monograph about this subject.
Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms. Freud's first theory to explain hysterical symptoms was presented in Studies on Hysteriaco-authored with his mentor Psychoanalytic perspective distinguished physician Josef Breuerwhich was generally seen as the birth of psychoanalysis.
The work was based on Breuer's treatment of Bertha Pappenheimreferred to in case studies by the pseudonym " Anna O.
Breuer wrote that many factors that could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet ; while Freud contended that at the root of Psychoanalytic perspective symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations.
It remained unpublished in his lifetime. This became the received historical account until challenged by several Freud scholars in the latter part of the 20th century who argued that he had imposed his preconceived notions on his patients.
Freud formulated his second psychological theory— which hypothesises that the unconscious has or is a "primary process" consisting of symbolic and condensed thoughts, and a "secondary process" of logical, conscious thoughts. This theory was published in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams.
In this theory, which was mostly later supplanted by the Structural Theory, unacceptable sexual wishes were repressed into the "System Unconscious", unconscious due to society's condemnation of premarital sexual activity, and this repression created anxiety.
This "topographic theory" is still popular in much of Europe, although it has fallen out of favour in much of North America. Freud and Jung in the center InFreud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality  in which he laid out his discovery of so-called psychosexual phases: His early formulation included the idea that because of societal restrictions, sexual wishes were repressed into an unconscious state, and that the energy of these unconscious wishes could be turned into anxiety or physical symptoms.
Therefore, the early treatment techniques, including hypnotism and abreaction, were designed to make the unconscious conscious in order to relieve the pressure and the apparently resulting symptoms.
This method would later on be left aside by Freud, giving free association a bigger role. In On Narcissism  Freud turned his attention to the subject of narcissism. Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis.
Byin "Mourning and Melancholia", he suggested that certain depressions were caused by turning guilt-ridden anger on the self. ByFreud addressed the power of identification with the leader and with other members in groups as a motivation for behavior Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego.
Also, it was the first appearance of his "structural theory" consisting three new concepts id, ego, and superego. Hence, Freud characterised repression as both a cause and a result of anxiety. Inin Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Freud characterised how intrapsychic conflict among drive and superego wishes and guilt caused anxietyand how that anxiety could lead to an inhibition of mental functions, such as intellect and speech.
According to Freud, the Oedipus complex, was at the centre of neurosis, and was the foundational source of all art, myth, religion, philosophy, therapy—indeed of all human culture and civilization. It was the first time that anyone in the inner circle had characterised something other than the Oedipus complex as contributing to intrapsychic development, a notion that was rejected by Freud and his followers at the time.
Also inAnna FreudSigmund's daughter, published her seminal book, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, outlining numerous ways the mind could shut upsetting things out of consciousness.Toronto Psychoanalytic Society (TPS) is a not-for-profit association of professional psychoanalysts engaged in the development and advancement of clinical.
Freud’s hypothesis about the origin of transference was based on the assumption that each individual, through the combined operation of innate disposition and influences brought to bear during early years, acquired a somewhat fixed method or set of methods of living which were evident in all relationships.
Desy Safán-Gerard, Ph.D., is a Training and Supervising Analyst at the Psychoanalytic Center of California in Los timberdesignmag.com has led a threefold life in music, painting and psychoanalysis. Her book is based on her papers and presentations in the USA, Europe and South America over the last forty years.
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The San Francisco Center for Psychoanalysis was organized in , combining the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute & Society, founded in , with the San Francisco Foundation for Psychoanalysis, founded in