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This context is nested within a broader community context, such as the neighborhood and schools, and societal factors e. Interactions within and among these contexts affect behavior.
This chapter presents an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence child and adolescent eating behaviors and food and beverage choices. From this perspective, child and adolescent eating behaviors are conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences, or spheres of influence.
These include biological factors, familial and social relationships, neighborhood, community, and institutional settings, culture and values, and broader social and economic trends. This chapter describes the following spheres of influence: Individual and developmental factors e.
Page 92 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Food Marketing to Children and Youth: The National Academies Press. If the diets of children and youth are to improve, attention must be given not only to the behavior of individuals but also to the environmental context and conditions in which people live and eat.
Current studies are inadequate to explain with certainty how individual and environmental influences interact to influence dietary behaviors and health outcomes of children and youth. Simultaneous analyses of sociodemographic, psychological, developmental, and environmental factors and their interactions with food choices are rare in the literature.
The few cases that do exist are often focused on a specific age group or a single food group, such as fruits and vegetables.
The following sections present both empirical evidence and theoretical links to eating behaviors. Biological and Genetic Factors Biological Factors Eating is a behavior influenced by physiological factors. It involves many organs and the central nervous system.
Hunger, appetite, and satiety are all under neural regulatory control. Physiological factors influence food intake through sensory stimulation e.
Environmental and cognitive factors can interfere with or override physiological controls of eating and calorie intake.
In fact, food intake in humans may depend more on external factors rather than physiological factors Bell and Rolls, Recent advances in the field of behavioral neuroscience have begun to increase the scientific understanding of the neurobiology of eating and food intake, including when and how much food is consumed and when eating is terminated.
Gut—brain signals appear to be a critical neural network in the regulation of calorie intake and meal size. The discovery of bioactive food-stimulated gut peptides, adipocyte hormones, and hypothalamic neuropeptides all appear to affect food intake Schwartz, It has been suggested that central regulatory mechanisms may contribute to the preference of sugars and fats over other macronutrients and tastes Drewnowski and Levine, Much of the neurobiological mechanism research has been done in animal models, or human neuroimaging studies with patterns of Page 93 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Thus, the effect of the neurobiology of eating and food intake on human behavior has not been fully elucidated.
Some universal biological food predispositions may exist, including preferences for sweetness and fat texture, avoidance of irritation, avoidance of bitter and strong tastes, a tendency to be suspicious of new foods, and a set of genetic learning predispositions Rozin, The place for everything in Oprah's world.
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Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends. Unhealthy eating habits are seen in adolescents in the United States and many other countries. Sound nutrition can play a role in the prevention of several chronic diseases, including obesity, coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes [ ].
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Snacking Habits of Indian Youth Female Snacking Habits of Indian Youth Females Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow Declaration We hereby declare that this work entitled, “Snacking Habits of Indian Youth Females” is our work carried under the guidance of our faculty guide, Prof.
Devashish Das Gupta at IIM Lucknow.