The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Dev Psychol See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing, but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Residential instability showed mixed links with functioning, whereas housing cost and type were not consistently predictive. Results suggest that housing contexts are associated with functioning across the developmental span from early childhood through late adolescence, with some differences in patterns by child age.
An education for young adolescents must be Developmentally responsive Using the distinctive nature of young adolescents as the foundation upon which all decisions about school organization, policies, curriculum, instruction, and assessment are made.
Challenging Ensuring that every student learns and every member of the learning community is held to high expectations. Empowering Providing all students with the knowledge and skills they need to take responsibility for their lives, to address life's challenges, to function successfully at all levels of society, and to be creators of knowledge.
Equitable Advocating for and ensuring every student's right to learn and providing appropriately challenging and relevant learning opportunities for every student. Keys to Educating Young Adolescentsorganizes the 16 research-based characteristics of effective middle grades education into three areas: Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Educators value young adolescents and are prepared to teach them.
Value Young Adolescents Effective middle grades educators make a conscious choice to work with young adolescents and advocate for them. They understand the developmental uniqueness of this age group, the appropriate curriculum, effective learning and assessment strategies, and their importance as models.
Students and teachers are engaged in active, purposeful learning.
Active Learning Instructional practices place students at the center of the learning process. As they develop the ability to hypothesize, to organize information into useful and meaningful constructs, and to grasp long-term cause and effect relationships, students are ready and able to play a major role in their own learning and education.
Curriculum is challenging, exploratory, integrative, and relevant. Challenging Curriculum Curriculum embraces every planned aspect of a school's educational program. An effective middle level curriculum is distinguished by learning activities that appeal to young adolescents, is exploratory and challenging, and incorporates student-generated questions and concerns.
Educators use multiple learning and teaching approaches. Multiple Learning Approaches Teaching and learning approaches should accommodate the diverse skills, abilities, and prior knowledge of young adolescents, cultivate multiple intelligences, draw upon students' individual learning styles, and utilize digital tools.
When learning experiences capitalize on students' cultural, experiential, and personal backgrounds, new concepts are built on knowledge students already possess. Varied and ongoing assessments advance learning as well as measure it. Varied Assessments Continuous, authentic, and appropriate assessment measures, including both formative and summative ones, provide evidence about every student's learning progress.
Such information helps students, teachers, and family members select immediate learning goals and plan further education. Leadership and Organization A shared vision developed by all stakeholders guides every decision.
Shared Vision When a shared vision and mission statement become operational, middle level educators pursue appropriate practices in developing a challenging academic program; they develop criteria to guide decisions and a process to make needed changes.
Leaders are committed to and knowledgeable about this age group, educational research, and best practices. Committed Leaders Courageous, collaborative middle level leaders understand young adolescents, the society in which they live, and the theory of middle level education.
Such leaders understand the nuances of teaming, student advocacy, exploration, and assessment as components of a larger middle level program. Leaders demonstrate courage and collaboration.
The principal, working collaboratively with a leadership team, focuses on building a learning community that involves all teachers and places top priority on the education and healthy development of every student, teacher, and staff member.
Ongoing professional development reflects best educational practices.
Professional Development Professional development is a continuing activity in middle level schools where teachers take advantage of every opportunity to work with colleagues to improve the learning experiences for their students.
Organizational structures foster purposeful learning and meaningful relationships.Understand the life-cycle characteristics and developmental needs of children, ages Connect the human and spiritual development theories to the needs of children, ages Understand the life-cycle characteristics and developmental needs of adolescents, ages Adolescents with physical disabilities reported good self-esteem, strong family relationships, and as many close friends as adolescents in the national sample.
However, adolescents with physical disabilities participated in fewer social activities and had less intimate relationships with their friends. Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness.
There is a relatively low sexual dimorphism between human males and females in comparison with other mammals. Encourage your teen to get enough sleep and physical activity, and to eat healthy, balanced meals. Make sure your teen gets 1 hour or more of physical activity each day.
Keep television sets out of your teen’s bedroom. . The period of adolescence, which lasts approximately 11 to 21 years, is characterized by several social and emotional changes. These include labile emotions, exploring and asserting of personal identity, peer relationships, independence, self-centered attitudes, and testing rules and boundaries.
The. Factors such as stability, affordability, and physical characteristics may support or inhibit the central developmental tasks of children either directly or indirectly by affecting parental and family functioning.