Work Companies have been known to spend millions of dollars designing their corporate logos — for good reason.
Historically, there are three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: A psychological B sociological C biological All infer different methods of control, but it is difficult to completely separate the three categories as it is generally accepted that all three of the factors play a role in the expression of behavior.
Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains.
However, there are some general principles associated with each of these paradigms that would be associated with some specific crime control policies.
This results in admittedly narrow definition for each of the categories, but it does simplify the discussion herein.
Psychological Approaches There a many different psychological models of criminal behavior ranging from early Freudian notions to later cognitive and social psychological models. I cannot review them all here. Instead, I will list the several fundamental assumptions of psychological theories of criminality and human behavior in general.
The individual is the primary unit of analysis in psychological theories. Personality is the major motivational element that drives behavior within individuals. Normality is generally defined by social consensus. Crimes then would result from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personality of the individual.
Criminal behavior may be purposeful for the individual insofar as it addresses certain felt needs. Defective, or abnormal, mental processes may have a variety of causes, i.
The last assumption of the psychological model would suggest that a variety of different causes or reasons exist for criminal behavior and that general principles targeted at the individual would be effective for crime control.
However, the model also assumes that there is a subset of a psychological criminal type, defined currently as antisocial personality disorder in the DSM-IV and previously defined as the sociopath or psychopath APA, This type of criminal exhibits deviant behavior early in life and is associated with self-centeredness, a lack of empathy, and a tendency to see others as tools for their ends.
Controls for these individuals would be more extreme and general public policies may not be stringent enough to curb the behavior in this small subset of criminals. Given these six principles to establish psychological explanations of criminal behavior, we can suggest first that traditional imprisonment, fines, and other court sanctions are based on operant learning models of behavior for crime control.
Operant learning models are based on the utilitarian concepts that all people wish to maximize pleasure and minimize pain or discomfort. Skinnerian based social psychological theories of reinforcement and punishment are influential in this model of criminal control although the idea of punishment for crime has a much longer history Jeffery, Technically speaking, punishments are any sanctions designed to decrease a specific behavior; thus, fines, jail sentences, etc.
However, Skinner himself recognized that punishment was generally ineffective in behavior modification and that reinforcement worked better e. A caveat should be applied here: Punishment is effective if applied properly, but unfortunately it rarely is applied properly.
Punishment needs to be immediate or as close to the time the offense as possibleinescapable, and sufficiently unpleasant in fact, the more it is subjectively perceived as harsh, the better.
Given the judicial system in the U. Nonetheless, punishments and sanctions for criminal behavior are based on behavioral psychological principles.Behavior therapy is a psychological approach focusing on observable behavior determined by the environment and the history of interactions between the individual and his environment.
Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions The Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions and Behavior Martie G. Haselton UCLA, Center for Behavior Evolution and Culture & Timothy Ketelaar "The heart has its reasons which reason knows nothing of." Blaise Pascal, Philosopher "Your intellect may .
Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Feb 09, · Companies have been known to spend millions of dollars designing their corporate logos – for good reason.
A bad logo design can doom a brand. When the clothing retailer the Gap attempted to refresh its logo in . Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental timberdesignmag.comgh many behaviors could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context.
There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior . BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.