In Trompenaars started his career at the Royal Dutch Shell Personnel Division, working on job classification and management development.
Strategies Universalism People place a high importance on laws, rules, values, and obligations. They try to deal fairly with people based on these rules, but rules come before relationships. Help people understand how their work ties into their values and beliefs. Provide clear instructions, processes, and procedures.
Keep promises and be consistent. Give people time to make decisions. Use an objective process to make decisions yourself, and explain your decisions if others are involved. Particularism People believe that each circumstance, and each relationship, dictates the rules that they live by.
Their response to a situation may change, based on what's happening in the moment, and who's involved. Give people autonomy to make their own decisions.
Respect others' needs when you make decisions. Be flexible in how you make decisions. Take time to build relationships and get to know people so that you can better understand their needs.
Highlight important rules and policies that need to be followed. Typical universalist cultures include the U. Typical particularistic cultures include Russia, Latin-America, and China. They believe that you make your own decisions, and that you must take care of yourself.
Praise and reward individual performance. Give people autonomy to make their own decisions and to use their initiative. Link people's needs with those of the group or organization. Allow people to be creative and to learn from their mistakes.
Communitarianism People believe that the group is more important than the individual. The group provides help and safety, in exchange for loyalty. The group always comes before the individual.Alfonsus (Fons) Trompenaars (born , Amsterdam) is a Dutch organizational theorist, management consultant, and author in the field of cross-cultural communication.
known for the development of Trompenaars' model of national culture differences. Trompenaars’ five relationship orientations There are five orientations covering the ways in which human beings deal with each other: 1.
Universalism versus Particularism Do we consider rules or relationships more important? 2. Geert Hofstede vs Fons Trompenaars.
Print Reference this. Published: 23rd February, Last Edited: power distance and long term/short term orientation. According to Hofstede, these 5 criteria explain the disparities between the nations and the individuals.
He applied his theories to all the countries in the world.
From three basics. and Strodtbeck, there are five possible criteria of describing a value orientation: (1) human nature orientation; (2) man-nature orientation; (3) time orientation; (4) activity orientation; and (5) relational orientation (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, , pp.
11 ff). HOFSTEDE’S 5 DIMENSIONS POWER DISTANCE Trompenaars’s Dimensions Universalism vs. Particularism Universalism is the belief in: KLUCKHOHN AND STRODEBECK’S VALUE ORIENTATIONS RELATIONSHIP TO NATURE Issue Variations Relation to nature Subjugation to nature Harmony with nature Mastery.
The Cultural Orientations Framework 2 What is our relationship to nature: are we subjugated to nature, in harmony with nature, or do we have mastery over it?
3 What is our relationship to other human beings: is it lineal (ordered position ), and Trompenaars’.